Climate Deal 2015

Paris Climate Summit December 4: Will smaller countries be heard?

Yesterday governments kept working on the draft text, which had to be submitted by Saturday morning. Saudi Arabia continues to block progress on a number of issues. They have opposed a reference to limit temperature increase to 1.5 degrees and to provide support to developing countries. Yet they have been keen on requesting financial support for themselves for access to technology. Surprisingly, Norway has refused to include language on human rights, which includes the rights of indigenous peoples, gender equality and intergenerational equity among others.

Meanwhile, vulnerable countries continue to call for a 1.5 degree limit, standing firm in their position. The G77 bloc (which groups more than 130 developing nations) is pushing for developed countries to lead. Small-island states, progressive Latin American countries and the Least Developed Country group are playing proactive roles in discussions of how responsibilities are differentiated. The question is will these smaller countries be supported, especially by the large emitters?

International Cooperation

  • As in the previous days, there is still strong disagreements between negotiating blocs on the question of who should take responsibility for delivering financial support. China in particular has opposed references in the text to ensure investments support climate action.

On Reducing Emissions

  • Vulnerable countries and the European Union proposed an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change special report in 2018, which the United States, India, Singapore, Saudi Arabia and China opposed.
  • There is also disagreement on when to begin reviewing countries’ pledges. The consensus was that this would happen every five years, but negotiators must remain vigilant.

Key Announcements

  • 1000 mayors from cities like Rio de Janeiro, Santiago, London, Copenhagen, Berlin, Sydney, Seoul, Chicago, and New Delhi among many others established their commitment to tackle climate change at the Climate Summit of Local Leaders in Paris. In this historic meeting, mayors joined the UN launch of a report on boosting investment towards climate smart cities.

  • Germanwatch released their 2016 Global Risk Index, which looks at the vulnerability of countries around the world.

Nivela in the News and Side Events:

  • Our Director Monica Araya was invited to speak at Huffington Post Live about the leadership of small nations in combating climate change.
  • Araya was also part of the “Getting to zero - Nation, state and city initiatives” side event organized by Carbon Neutral.
  • Araya was quoted on a 9News story on the push by vulnerable nations to limit warming to 1.5 degrees
  • Araya also moderated an event organized by CICERO on improvements to the communication of climate science by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Read Diego Arguedas’ analysis on the negotiations: The World’s Vulnerable Lead on Ambition, Will Anyone Listen?

Follow the Nivela team at COP21:


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